Steps in validating a survey instrument

19-Apr-2015 09:59

Validity is the amount of systematic or built-in error in measurement (Norland, 1990).Validity is established using a panel of experts and a field test.Questionnaires are the most frequently used data collection method in educational and evaluation research.Questionnaires help gather information on knowledge, attitudes, opinions, behaviors, facts, and other information.Major variables (independent, dependent, and moderator variables) are identified and defined in this step.In Step 3, the focus is on writing statements/questions, selection of appropriate scales of measurement, questionnaire layout, format, question ordering, font size, front and back cover, and proposed data analysis.The Fog Index, Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kinkaid Readability Formula, and Gunning-Fog Index are formulas used to determine readability.Approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) must also be obtained.

They also found that a third of the studies reviewed did not report procedures for establishing validity (31%) or reliability (33%).

Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire is a must to reduce measurement error.

Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.

For example, if ANOVA (analysis of variance) is one mode of data analysis, the independent variable must be measured on a nominal scale with two or more levels (yes, no, not sure), and the dependent variable must be measured on a interval/ratio scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).

As a result of Steps 1-3, a draft questionnaire is ready for establishing validity.

They also found that a third of the studies reviewed did not report procedures for establishing validity (31%) or reliability (33%).Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire is a must to reduce measurement error.Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.For example, if ANOVA (analysis of variance) is one mode of data analysis, the independent variable must be measured on a nominal scale with two or more levels (yes, no, not sure), and the dependent variable must be measured on a interval/ratio scale (strongly agree to strongly disagree).As a result of Steps 1-3, a draft questionnaire is ready for establishing validity.This article describes the sequential steps involved in the development and testing of questionnaires used for data collection.